Influential Theories of Mesotherapy
Following on from Dr Pistor’s Reflex Theory of Mesotherapy, different theories which explain the mechanism of action of mesotherapy have arisen and gained prominence, the most influential three are:
Microcirculatory Theory by Dr Bicheron
Dr Bicheron was an early adopter of mesotherapy, first employing the technique in 1958.
Dr Bicheron theorised that microcirculatory vascular damage may arise from a diseased organ, tendon or articulation, which then aggravates the problem, and that when drugs are administered locally or regionally as with mesotherapy, they counter this by causing a stimulating effect on the local microcirculation.
This concept has been supported by thermographic imagery, before and after treatment, that reveal alterations, and gave physicians a rationale behind mesotherapy actions in diverse pathologies such as degenerative osteoarticular disease, vascular acrosyndromes and cellulite.
Mesodermic or Three Units Theory of Mesotherapy by Dr Andre Dalloz-Bourguignon
Dr Dalloz-Bourguignon opened the first mesotherapy hospital consultation in Paris in 1976 and in 1982 published research which studied the diffusion of drugs in the subcutaneous tissues, which led to the Mesodermic Theory. This theory applies to the treatment of connective tissue originating from the mesoderm, such as skin, bone and cartilage. According to it, the three units involved are:
The microcirculatory unit which comprises of small capillary and venous spaces that ensure blood exchange as well as the transport of secretions from the connective tissue cells and the medications introduced via the mesotherapy technique.
The neural-vegetative unit is the element of the sympathetic system that is present in the dermis and is responsible for the regulation of the nervous system.
The immunological aspect consists of the connective tissue that generates defense zones with specialised cells, namely, plasmocytes and mastocytes, which respond to the penetration of the mesotherapy product and explain their influence on the immunological system.
Dr Jean-Pierre Multedo and the Third Circulatory Theory
Dr Multedo, a former teacher of “Société Française de Mésothérapie” hypothesised the Third Circulatory Theory in a study published in 1985 which identifies the connection between intracellular and connective tissue to restore the neuro-transmission and tissue resistance.
In this theory, there are three compartments; the blood circulation, the lymphatic system and the interstitial compartment – the space between the cells, known as the third circulation which is the area for mesotherapy.
This concept theorises that the mesotherapy solutions are delivered through the interstitial space to the deepest tissues and reach the target area in high concentrations, due to the absorption by vessels. This theory explains why mesotherapy can have its therapeutic effect even when using very small doses of medication.